The fundamental disciplines such as Mathematics are still the weakest ones, which have the disadvantages such as lack of major original achievements, the insufficient investment, unreasonable structure, lack of top talents and teams, the improvement on the evaluation and incentive system is urgently needed, insufficient attention from the enterprises, and the support from the whole society on the fundamental research needs to be strengthened.

In the national key research and development plan, a key special project of “Mathematics and Interdisciplinary Science” was established to coordinate and support mathematics and interdisciplinary scientific research, focusing on scientific and engineering computing, mathematical theories and methods of big data and artificial intelligence, optimization and control in complex system, and computer mathematics, etc. Key mathematical issues in major national strategic needs such as information technology, energy and environment, ocean, biomedicine, economics and financial security, etc., are deployed.